Prehistoric arrowheads (3rd
millennium B.C.) and sculptures of the
Mediterranean Mother Goddess (now in the Archeological Museum
Cagliari) were retrieved which demonstrate a well developed
of stone carving.
Age and Obsidian.
in the Stone Age Monte Arci played an important role.
The old volcano was one of the central places where obsidian was
and worked for cutting tools and arrowheads. Even now the volcanic
can be found on the sides of the mountain.
prehistorical era of Sardinia is characterised by the typical
in stone that are called Nuraghe. There are about 7000 of these
more or less complex. The most famous is the complex of Barumini in
province of Cagliari. The Nuraghe (Nuraxi) were built in the period
about 1800 to 250 BC, with the climax between 1200 and 900
Next to that holy waterplaces have been built (for example
Sardara) and the grave structures called Dolmen. It is known
Sardinians already had contact with the Myceneans, who traded
alleged connection with the Shardana, the sea people that
Egypt has not been proven. Tombs (Tombe dei giganti) have
shaped like a sinking ship, probably witness to a tragedy on
Euboians, the first Greeks to navigate westwards, called the island
(later latinized in Ichnus(s)a). The Nora stone has been seen as proof
island was called Sharden by the Phoenicians, and from there it derived
Punics and Romans in Sardinia.
the 8th century BC, Phoenicians founded several cities and
strongholds on Sardinia; Tharros, Bithia, Sulcis, Nora and Karalis
The Phoenicians came originally from Lebanon and traded in the
They settled everywhere in the region. Sardinia had a special
because it was central in the western Mediterranean between
Spain, the Rhone river and the Etruscan civilization area. The mining
around Iglesias was important for the metals (lead and zinc). The
were founded on strategic points, often peninsulas or islands
estuaries, easy to defend and natural harbours. After the
the Punics (from Carthage) took over control in that part of
Mediterrenean, around 550 BC. The Punics expanded their influence
almost the whole of Sardinia.
BC the Romans took over the island. They did fight a war with
Carthage, the First Punic War, but only after the war
mercenaries revolted and gave the Romans the opportunity to land
Sardinia and occupy it. When the Romans took over Sardinia
practically took over an existing developed infrastructure and
culture (at least in the plains). Together with Sicily it formed one of
main granaries of Rome until the Romans conquered Egypt.
The Phoenician-Punic culture remained very strong under the
until the first centuries AD. Tharros, Nora, Bithia, Antas and Monte
are now important archaeological monuments where architecture
city planning can be studied.
the fall of the Roman Empire, Sardinia was subject to several
conquests. In 456, the Vandals occupied the island coming from
Africa, after which the Byzantines liberated the island and made it
of the Byzantine Empire.
711, the Saracens harassed the population of the coastal
For that reason in the ninth century Tharros was abandoned in favor
Oristano, after more than 1800 years of occupation. The aid of
maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa was called in the
against the Arabs. From 1063 on the island, following the
political and administrative organization of the territory, the
("held by judges") were formed. The most remarkable figure in the
Middle Ages was Eleonora d'Arborea, the woman who laid the
foundations for the laws that remained valid until 1827, the Carta
Logu. At the same time the influence of the Spanish Aragonese
increased until they conquered Sardinia. The watchtowers all along
coast are called Aragonese towers and served to protect the
against the Arab incursions. Some of these towers were built with
stones of the Phoenician cities because these lay on strategic
A nice example of reuse for secular and ecclesiastical architecture
also be found in the church of Santa Giusta where the old city of
had been. The influence of the Spanish has been so strong that
now around Alghero a Catalan dialect is spoken.
Since 1794, the liberal-nationalist Giovanni Maria Angioy was
patriot during the Sardinian revolution versus
kingdom of Sardinia until the present day.
1718 and 1861 (the unity of Italy), Sardinia and Piedmont
formed the Kingdom of Sardinia. The development of the
was slow. Under Carlo Felice, the most important road was built
south (Cagliari) to north (Sassari). It still bears his name. In 1883
trains travelled between Cagliari and Sassari and under Mussolini
swamps around Oristano were laid dry and the foundation of the
successful agrarian community was laid, Arborea. Mussolini also
Carbonia, the centre of the mining activity. After the Second World
coal decreased in importance and that of tourism increased.
Many efforts to create jobs have failed because of the high costs
transport that could not compensate the cheap labor.
Today Sardinia is an autonomous region and its history is still visible
language and culture. Noticeable is also the difference between coastal
regions and the inland. Coastal regions have always been more open
outside influences. Nowadays Sardinia is most known for the
coasts and island (La Maddalena, Costa Smeralda) and the coast
Cagliari because these are easily reached by ship and by plane.
The Emerald Coast, a most famous zone of our land.
The Sardinia continues a democratic battle for a modern and
Independence from Italy.
2005 > 2009.